Modern mobile phones become small portable computers that can
virtually do everything like a normal desktop computer (Adepu &
Some of its most used functions, apart from using it as a phone are: multimedia
device, social networking device, gaming console, internet browser (Adepu & Adler, 2016). However, mobile
phones weren’t always as powerful a computer as they are now, not until the
introduction of the first iPhone in 2007 did the smart phone movement properly
gain momentum (Pressman, 2017).
Since then, people have been
becoming increasingly attached to their phones, and the frequency with which
they check their phones have been increasing (Stickles, Kempema, & Brown,
With some people it has become an addiction (Alter, 2017).
This leads us
to the question, what makes mobile phones addictive?
In order to
attempt to answer the question of this research paper, a hypothesis and null
hypothesis will be set and compared with scientific biopsychosocial literature.
immersive the mobile phone interface is, the more addictive it becomes.
No link between
mobile phone interface and mobile phone addiction.
Interaction with mobile phones occurs through the output methods of
the device and the user’s visual, auditory and tactile senses (koing, 2010). However, the impact
of visual perception in individuals that have all senses fully functional is
greater than the rest of the senses (Kirsch, Herbort, Ullrich, &
This empirical fact contributes to the research that has been conducted on the
evolution of mobile phones, whereas screens have become larger with the
emergence of the smartphone, the user experience has become more immersive and
enticing (Alter, 2017).
Moreover, a 2018 study found evidence to support the correlation
between mobile phone addiction and craniovertebral angle and depression (Salvi & Battin, 2018).
the neurobiologist Adam Alter, psychological drivers of behavioral addiction
are social engagement, sense of effectiveness, mental stimulation and social
support (Alter, 2017), Those drivers are
being promoted by technology designers, especially social media applications
and sites (Alter, 2017)
which are proliferating with the advancement of the smartphone screen (Hao, Wang, &
of today’s technology aim at breaking down the individual’s self-regulation
mechanisms (Bosker, 2016) .This aim is
promoted and facilitated by technology corporations that employ them (Alter, 2017). This can be
demonstrated through social media sites that have a bottomless design interface
and reward users with a sense of engagement, such as likes, followers, friends
etc. (Alter, 2017).
This behavioral addiction is similar to substance addiction because they
activate the same brain areas (Alter, 2017), however, unlike
substance addiction, it is socially normalized and can’t be easily perceived (Morrie, Constable, & Malison, 2017).
was approached on multiple levels of the system hierarchy of the
biopsychosocial model (Engle, 1981),
ranging from the organ (brain) system level reaching the society system level.
However, the focus was on the person level in order to isolate variables which
might reduce contextual predictive validity (Laureate online education, 2016). The hypothesis was
not falsified, because it was supported with scientific literature.
Adepu, S., & Adler, R. F.
(2016). A comparison of performance and preference on mobile devices vs.
desktop computers. IEEE 7th Annual Ubiquitous Computing, Electronics &
Mobile Communication Conference (UEMCON). IEEE.
Alter, A. (2017). Irresistible: the business of
technology is the business of addiction . Saturday Evening Post,
Bosker, B. (2016, November). Tristan harris
believes silicon valley is addicting us to our phones. he's determined to make
it stop. Atlantic, pp. 56-65.
Engle, G. L. (1981). The clinical application of
the biopsychosocial model. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 101-124.
Freeman, J. (2005). Towards a definition of
holism. British Journal of General Practice, 154-155.
Hao, Y., Wang, Z., & Xu, X. (2016). Empirical
study on the interface and feature evolutions of mobile apps. In Lecture
Notes In Computer Science (p. 657). Banff, Canada: Springer.
Kirsch, W., Herbort, O., Ullrich, B., & Kunde,
W. (2017). On the origin of body-related influences on visual perception. Journal
of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1222-1237.
koing, M. (2010). System and method for generating
a message notification based on sensory detection. USPTO Patent Applications.
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kills, so why do people do it? Mind, Brain and Behavior. Netherlands:
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related health behaviour. Mind, Brain and Behavior. Netherlands:
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Week 8: applications of the biopsychosocial approach to health issues. does
getting rich make us happier? Mind, Brain and Behavior. Netherlands:
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Week 8: applications of the biopsychosocial approach to health issues. why does
childhood immunisation cause controversy? Mind, Brain and Behavior.
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Morrie, Constable, & Malison. (2017). Shared
microstructural features of behavioral and substance addictions revealed in
areas of crossing fibers. Elsevier, Inc., 188-195.
Pressman, A. (2017, January 6). The iphone decade.
Fortune , pp. 23-25.
Salvi, R., & Battin, S. (2018). Correlation of
mibile phone addiction scale (mpas) score with craneovertebral angle, scapular
index and becks depression inventory scores in young adults. International
Journal of Physiotherapy, 7-12.
Stickles, J. L., Kempema, J. M., & Brown, L.
H. (2018). Original contribution: effect of mobile phone proliferation on crash
notification times and fatality rates. American Journal of Emergency
Medicine , 24-26.