personality that were developed throughout the 20th century were
varied in approach and substance. There were four major schools the
psychodynamic, humanistic, trait theorists, and the social cognitive
As its name suggests, psychodynamic theory is centered on the idea
that there’s a continuous dynamic conflict between the conscious and the
Freud’s theory relied heavily on the influence of the unconscious, but
because he relied heavily of self-report, introspection, and other subjective
techniques to form his theories, they were deemed unscientific due to the
difficulty of testing them empirically.
Trait theory on the other hand was propelled forward by Gordon
Allport, who defined personality through conscious motivations and behavior
patterns, also by using traits as descriptive measures of personality rather
than attempting to explain it
Eysenck’s 3 factor model was later developed by Paul Costa and
Robert McRae into what is now known as the 5 factor model, which is the revised
and updated scientific approach to measuring personality
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Rosenzweig, S., & Fisher, S. L. (1997). "Idiographic" vis-a-vis "idiodynamic" in the historical perspective of personality theory: Remembering Gordon Allport, 1897-1997. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences , 405-419.
Twenge, J. M., & Campbell, W. K. (2017). Psychodynamic approaches. In Personality Psychology: Understanding Yourself and Others (pp. 142-176). New York: Pearson.